Video instructions and help with filling out and completing Are Form 944 Pr Individuals

Instructions and Help about Are Form 944 Pr Individuals

The Ottoman Empire and the West in the 19th century like China the Islamic world represented a highly successful civilization that felt little need to learn from the infidels or barbarians of the west until it collided with an expanding and aggressive Europe in the 19th century unlike China though Islamic civilization had been a near neighbour to Europe for 1,000 years its most prominent State the Ottoman Empire had long governed substantial parts of the Balkans and posed a clear military and religious threat to Europe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries but if it's encounter with the West was less abrupt than that of China it was no less consequential neither the Ottoman Empire nor china fell under direct colonial rule but both were much diminished as the changing balance of global power too cold both launched efforts at defensive modernization aimed at strengthening their states and preserving their independence and in both societies some people held tightly to old identities and values even as others embrace new loyalties associated with nationalism and modernity the sick man of Europe in 1750 the Ottoman Empire was still the central political fixture of a widespread Islamic world from its Turkish heartland in Anatolia it ruled over much of the Arab world from which Islam and Tom it protected pilgrims on their way to Mecca governed Egypt and coastal north africa and incorporated millions of Christians in the Balkans its ruler the Sultan claimed the role of caliph successor to the Prophet Muhammad and was widely viewed as the leader defender and primary representative of the Islamic world but by the middle and certainly by the end of the 19th century the Ottoman Empire was no longer able to deal with Europe from a position of equality let alone superiority among the great powers of the West it was now known as the sick man of Europe within the Muslim world the Ottoman Empire once viewed as the strong sword of Islam was unable to prevent region after region in India Indonesia West Africa and Central Asia from falling under the coastal from falling under the control of Christian powers the Ottoman Empire's own domains shrink considerably at the hands of Russian British Austrian and French aggression in 1798 Napoleon's invasion of egypt which had long been a province of the ottoman empire was a particularly stunning blow a contemporary observer Abby al Rahman al Jabar T described the French entry into Cairo the French entered the city like a torrent rushing through the alleys and streets without anything to stop them like demons of the devil's army and the French trod in the mosque of al-azhar with their shoes carrying swords and rifles they plundered whatever they found in the most they treated the books and Quranic volumes as trash furthermore they soiled the mosque blowing this bit in it passing and defecating in it they guzzled one and smashed bottles in the central point when the French left a virtually independent Egypt pursued a modernizing and empire building program of its own and on one occasion came close to toppling the Ottoman Empire itself beyond territorial losses to stronger European powers other parts of the Empire such as Greece Serbia Bulgaria and Romania achieved independence based on their own surging nationalism and support from the British or the Russians the continued independence of the core region of the Ottoman Empire owed much to the inability of Europe's great powers to agree on how to divide it up among themselves behind the contraction of the Ottoman Empire lay other problems as in China the central Ottoman state had weakened particularly in ability to raise necessary revenue as provincial authorities and local warlords warlords gained greater power moreover the Janissaries wants the effective and innovative elite infantry units of Ottoman military forces lost their military edge becoming a highly conservative force within the Empire the technological and military age with the West the technological and military gap with with the West is clearly growing economically the earlier centrality of the Ottoman and Arab lands in afro-asian afro-asian commerce diminished as Europeans achieved direct ocean oceanic access to the treasures of Asia competition from cheap European manufactured goods hid out of an artist heart and the urban riots protesting foreign imports furthermore a series of agreements known as capitulations between european countries and the ottoman empire granted westerners various exemptions from ottoman law and taxation like the unequal treaties with China exemptions these agreements facilitated European penetration of the ottoman economy and became widely resented such measures noted Ottoman sovereignty and reflected the changing position of that empire relative to Europe so too did the growing indebtedness of the Ottoman Empire which came to rely on foreign loans to finance its efforts at economic development by 1882 its inability to pay the interest on those deaths led to foreign control of much of its revenue gap generating system while a similar situation in Egypt led to its outrights occupation by the British like China the Ottoman Empire had fallen into a position of considerable dependency on.

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